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Saudi Arabia

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Bahrain is a country in the Persian Gulf that is formally known as the Kingdom of Bahrain. The island nation is made up of a small archipelago with 50 natural islands and another 33 man-built islands.

Since antiquity, Manama, the current capital of the Gulf island nation of Bahrain, has been at the crossroads of key commercial routes. The renowned Bahrain National Museum houses items from the ancient Dilmun culture, which lived for millennia in the region. The bustling Bab el-Bahrain Souq in the city sells everything from colorful handwoven garments to spices and pearls.

Jews, Christians, and Muslims view Israel, a Middle Eastern country on the Mediterranean Sea, as the biblical Holy Land.

Its holiest sites are in Jerusalem, the country’s capital. It is one of the world’s oldest cities, and the three Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—consider it sacred.

The Temple Mount complex contains the Dome of the Rock monument, the medieval Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, all of which are located within Jerusalem’s Old City. Tel Aviv, Israel’s financial capital, is famed for its Bauhaus architecture as well as its beaches.

Iraq is one of the Arab world’s easternmost countries, with a latitude similar to that of the southern United States.

Baghdad is Iraq’s capital and the Arab world’s second-largest metropolis, after Cairo. Baghdad was constructed in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Caliphate’s most noteworthy major development project. It was located along the Tigris, near the ruins of the old Akkadian city of Babylon and the ancient Sassanid Persian city of Ctesiphon.

Iran, commonly known as Persia, and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

Iran’s capital, Tehran, is located in the country’s northwestern region. The Qajar dynasty’s seat of power was the central Golestan Palace complex, with its opulent halls and marble throne. Many of the Qajar rulers’ treasures are housed in the National Jewelry Museum, while the National Museum of Iran houses items dating back to Paleolithic times. The Milad Tower has a 360-degree perspective of the city.


Jordan, an Arab country on the Jordan River’s east bank, is known for its ancient sites, nature reserves, and seaside resorts. Petra, the Nabatean capital from roughly 300 B.C., is its most famous archaeological site.

Petra is known as the “Rose City” because it is set in a narrow valley with tombs, temples, and monuments carved into the surrounding pink sandstone cliffs.

Jordan’s capital, Amman, is a contemporary city with several historic ruins. The medieval Citadel, which sits atop Jabal al-Qala’a hill, is home to the pillars of the Roman Temple of Hercules and the 8th-century Umayyad Palace complex, which is noted for its great dome. The Roman Theater is a 6,000-seat stone amphitheater built into a different downtown hillside that hosts infrequent performances.


Kuwait is a country in Western Asia that is formally known as the State of Kuwait. It is located at the tip of the Persian Gulf on the northern edge of Eastern Arabia.

Kuwait City is the capital of Kuwait, a Gulf country. The Grand Mosque, with its spacious interior and chandeliered dome, is at its core. The late-19th-century Seif Palace on the seafront with a neo-Arabic watchtower and beautiful gardens.

Nearby, the Kuwait National Museum covers history and has a planetarium with science programs. The Souk Al-Mubarakiya is a large food and craft market.

Lebanon is a country on the Mediterranean Sea’s eastern shore. It is one of the world’s smallest sovereign governments, consisting of a short strip of land.

Beirut is Lebanon’s capital and largest city. At the foot of the Lebanon Mountains, the city is situated on the Mediterranean coast.

Jounieh, a city intimately associated with Beirut, located 20 kilometers to the north.

Oman, formally the Sultanate of Oman, is a country in Western Asia located on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the Arab world’s oldest continuously sovereign state.

Muscat, Oman’s port capital, is bordered by mountains and desert on the Gulf of Oman. With a long history, it combines high-rises and luxury shopping malls with clifftop attractions like the 16th century Portuguese forts of Al Jalali and Mirani, which loom over Muscat Harbor.

The Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, which is marble-clad and has a 50-meter dome and a massive Persian carpet, can hold 20,000 people.

Qatar is a peninsular Arab country with harsh desert and a lengthy stretch of beaches and dunes along the Persian (Arab) Gulf.

Doha, Qatar’s capital, is also located on the shore and is recognized for its futuristic skyscrapers and other ultramodern structures inspired by classical Islamic design, such as the limestone Museum of Islamic Art. The museum is located on the city’s seaside promenade, the Corniche.

Saudi Arabia is a country in Western Asia that is formally known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers a large portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East and the Arab world’s second-largest country.

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia’s capital and primary financial center, is located in the country’s central desert plateau. The 302 meter high Kingdom Centre, with a sky bridge connecting two buildings, and the 267 meter high Al Faisaliah Centre, with a glass-globe apex, are both highlights in the business sector.

Masmak Fort, located in the ancient Deira area, commemorates the 1902 raid that gave the Al Sauds control of Riyadh.

Syria is a country in southwestern Asia located on the Mediterranean Sea’s east coast. Its territory includes the Golan Heights, which Israel has controlled since 1967.

Syria’s capital city is Damascus. It is known as aš-Šām and often described as the “City of Jasmine.” Damascus is a prominent cultural hub in the Arab world and the Levant. It was founded in the second millennium BC and is one of the world’s oldest continually inhabited towns.

Turkey, formally the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country centered on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a lesser component in Southeast Europe’s East Thrace.

Ankara, Turkey’s cosmopolitan capital, is located in the center Anatolia area of the country. It is a performing arts center that houses the State Opera and Ballet, the Presidential Symphony Orchestra, and a number of national theatrical companies.

Anitkabir, the massive hilltop mausoleum of Kemal Atatürk, modern Turkey’s first president, who designated Ankara the capital in 1923, towers over the city.

The United Arab Emirates, sometimes known as the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia located on the Arabian Peninsula’s eastern end. It shares land borders with Oman and Saudi Arabia, as well as sea borders with Qatar and Iran in the Persian Gulf.

Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, is located on an island in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the mainland. The contemporary skyline and shopping megacenters such as Abu Dhabi and Marina malls reflect the country’s reliance on oil exports and business.

The massive Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque, which is housed beneath white marble domes and has a capacity of 41,000 worshipers, contains an enormous Persian carpet, crystal chandeliers, and an expansive Persian carpet.

Yemen, formally the Republic of Yemen, is a country in Western Asia near the Arabian Peninsula’s southern tip. It shares marine borders with Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia, and borders Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the northeast.

Sanaa, sometimes spelled Sanaa or Sana, is Yemen’s capital and the administrative center of the Sanaa Governorate. The city is not part of the Governorate, but is part of the “Amanat Al-Asemah” administrative district.